By die geboorte van ‘n kind het beide ouers outomaties ‘n plig om daardie kind te onderhou. Die feit dat die kind uit getroude of ongetroude ouers gebore is, is irrelevant. Die plig word proporsioneel volgens die ouers se onderskeie middele verdeel.
Artikel 15(1) van die Wet op Onderhoud bepaal dat ‘n hofbevel vir die onderhoud van ‘n kind gerig is op die gemeenregtelike plig van ‘n kind se ouers om daardie kind te onderhou. Aangesien hierdie plig by die geboorte van ‘n kind ‘n aanvang neem, word die vader byvoorbeeld nie onthef van sy plig om onderhoud te betaal indien die moeder nie poog om dit af te dwing nie.
Dit is ‘n algemene gebeurtenis dat ouers die reg op toegang tot ‘n kind as teenstand gebruik om nie onderhoud te betaal nie en omgekeerd. Voorbeelde sluit in wanneer ‘n vader onderhoudbetalings aan die moeder weerhou as hy nie kontak met die kind kan hê nie, of wanneer ‘n ma die vader toegang tot die kind weier as hy nie betalings vir die onderhoud van daardie kind maak nie.
‘n Ouer se reg op toegang tot ‘n kind en die plig om die kind te onderhou, is twee baie duidelike kwessies.
’n Ouer mag nie die betaling van onderhoud weerhou as hy of sy nie deur die ander ouer toegelaat word om sy/haar reg op toegang tot ’n kind uit te oefen nie. Die keersy van die munt is dat ‘n ouer nie die ander ouer toegang tot ‘n kind mag weier wanneer laasgenoemde nié bydra tot die onderhoud van daardie kind nie. Hierdie optrede is onwettig. Om die reg in eie hande te neem is verbode en behoorlike regsprosedures moet gevolg word om hierdie regte uit te oefen.
Indien ‘n ouer versuim om onderhoud te betaal, kan die ouer by wie die kind woon, wat algemeen na verwys word as die primêre versorger van die kind, die Onderhoudshof nader om aansoek vir kinderonderhoud te doen. By die bepaling van die bedrag wat die ouer moet bydra, sal die hof die lewenstandaard van die kind, die finansiële behoeftes van die kind, die inkomste van die ouers, die ouer se finansiële vermoë om onderhoud te betaal en/of gebrek daaraan, in ag neem.
In die geval dat ‘n ouer toegang tot ‘n kind geweier word, kan hy of sy die klerk van die kinderhof nader om aansoek te doen om ‘n ouerskapsplan ingevolge artikel 33 van die Kinderwet, wat die bepalings uiteensit waarvolgens toegang tot ‘n kind toegestaan word. Die ouerskapsplan is in wese ‘n ooreenkoms tussen die ouers rakende die opvoeding van die kind, insluitend maar nie beperk, tot onderhoud, onderwys en kontak met met die kind nie.
Die ouers kan die volgende ooreenkom en by die ouerskapsplan inkorporeer:
- Die primêre versorger van die kind
- Toegang tot die kind deur die ander ouer, met inagneming van, onder andere, naweke, skoolvakansies, verjaarsdae, spesiale geleenthede en vervoerreëlings
- Die bedrag van onderhoud betaalbaar insluitend of uitgesluit, onder andere, mediese uitgawes, en/of skoolfonds en -uitgawes
- Toestemming en reëlings met betrekking tot reis buite die provinsie, buite die land, ens.
- ‘n Prosedure om te volg wanneer ‘n dispuut in terme van die ooreenkoms ontstaan
Die partye kan kies om ‘n ouerskapsplan ‘n hofbevel te maak en ‘n ouer wat dit verontagsaam, kan in minagting van die hof gehou word onderhewig aan die uitputting van alle alternatiewe metodes van geskilbeslegting.
As ouer, het jy die plig om jou kind te onderhou en die reg op toegang tot jou kind. Alhoewel hierdie kwessies nou verwant is, bly dit twee afsonderlike sake met verskillende regsprosesse. Daarom is dit onwettig vir ‘n ouer om onderhoud van ‘n kind te weerhou wanneer toegang tot daardie kind geweier word en omgekeerd.
- Kinderwet 38 van 2005
- Wet op Onderhoud 99 van 1998
- School for Legal Training: Attorneys’ Practice Study Guide Gawie Le Roux 2018
Hierdie artikel is ‘n algemene inligtingsblad en moet nie as regs- of ander professionele advies gebruik of staatgemaak word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of vir enige verlies of skade wat voortspruit uit vertroue op enige inligting hierin nie. Kontak altyd jou adviseur vir spesifieke en gedetailleerde advies. Foute en weglatings uitgesluit (E&OE).
Professional Assistant | LLB
Carla obtained her LLB at the North West University, Potchefstroom Campus in 2015. She completed her articles in 2017 with Brits Dreyer Inc in Bellville. She is an admitted Attorney, Notary and Conveyancer. After her articles she relocated to Kimberley where she worked as a professional assistant in the Conveyancing department of Van de Wall Inc. Coming back to her Western Cape roots, she now joins the PP Smit team as a professional assistant.
Attorney & Notary | LLB
Carien grew up and matriculated in the picturesque town of Ceres, whereafter she furthered her studies at the University of Stellenbosch and obtained her LLB degree in 2015. She completed her articles at VanderSpuy Cape Town in 2017 and stayed on as an associate litigant after being admitted as an attorney during early 2018. Carien loves the countryside and thus ventured back to Ceres where she joined Joubert Van Vuuren Inc. for a year. However, when she was presented with the opportunity to enjoy both the country- and the seaside, she couldn’t resist and joined PP Smit Attorneys at the beginning of 2022 as an avid litigator. When she is not at the office, Carien enjoys long walks, wine tasting, and exploring the area with her family and friends.
Attorney | LLB | NQF 7
Harmann graduated in 2018 with an LLB degree from the North-West University’s Potchefstroom Campus. He went on to study and grow in various fields, including doing a course on the Consumer Protection Act and a course at the University of South Africa where he obtained his NQF 7 Certificate in the Administration of Deceased Estates.
Harmann completed his articles of clerkship at Swemmer & Levin under the supervision of Mr Richard Phillips. After being admitted as an attorney in 2020, Harmann continued with PP Smit Attorneys as a professional assistant in the deceased estates department as well as the litigation department. He loves to study, possesses a deep curiosity about the world, and is dedicated to giving back to the community.
Andre van der Walt
Attorney | LLB | NQF 7
Andre graduated in 2015 with an LLB degree from the University of Pretoria. He later went on to obtain his NQF 7 Certificate in the Administration of Deceased Estates from the University of South Africa, which allowed him to further his career in deceased estates and the drafting of wills and trusts. Andre served his articles at Barnard & Patel Attorneys under the supervision of Mr YAS Patel. After being admitted as an attorney in 2016, he continued working at Barnard & Patel Attorneys as a professional assistant in the deceased estates department.
Andre joined Van Rensburg Attorneys in 2019 and was head of the deceased estates department until 2021. He then received the opportunity to move to the West Coast, where he joined Swemmer & Levin Attorneys, and not too long after that, he grabbed the opportunity to work at PP Smit Attorneys. Andre loves travelling and enjoys the beauty that our country has to offer with his friends, family, and loved ones.
Partner | Attorney | LLB
Jandré grew up and matriculated in the small Klein Karoo town of Oudtshoorn. He furthered his studies at the North-West University in Potchefstroom, obtaining his LLB degree during 2015. He completed his articles at Swemmer & Levin in 2017 and was subsequently appointed as a professional assistant. In 2020, Jandré was promoted to the position of director of the firm, where he practices in the Litigation department. Jandré additionally joined the partnership of PP Smit Attorneys during the same year. When not practising law, Jandré is an avid sports fan. He has a passion for nature and enjoys camping, trail running, and mountain biking with his family.
Partner | Attorney | Bcom & BProc
After matriculating at Paarl Boys’ High School, Richard completed his BCom and BProc degrees at the University of Port Elizabeth. He served his articles with Van Wyk Fouchee in Paarl and quickly developed an affinity for litigation. Richard has always had a deep love for the ocean and when he was presented with an opportunity he joined the partnership of PP Smit Attorneys during 2006. Richard specialises in general litigation and divorces. When he is not in the office or with his family, he tries to spend as much time as possible in or on the water.
Partner | Attorney | BA. LLB
Johann matriculated at Oudtshoorn High School and attended Stellenbosch University, where he obtained his BA Law and LLB degrees. Following his studies, he worked for three years as State Prosecutor at the Magistrate’s Court in Cape Town. Johann completed his legal training with the State Attorney in Pretoria and then moved to his hometown, Oudtshoorn, where he worked as a lawyer for a year. In 1983, he moved to Vredenburg and joined Swemmer & Levin, where after he joined the partnership of PP Smit Attorneys during 2006.. When he is not in the office, Johann enjoys cycling and in his earlier days, he used to be a long-distance junkie.
Partner | Attorney & Conveyancer | BA. LLB
Pieter obtained his BA Law degree from Stellenbosch University in 1995 and his LLB degree from the North-West University in Potchefstroom in 1998. He served his articles at Marais Muller Attorneys from 1998 to 1999 and was admitted as an attorney in 2000 and as a conveyancer in 2002. Pieter is the founder of PP Smit Attorneys, which opened its doors in 2004. He also became a director of Swemmer & Levin in 2006. Pieter loves the outdoors and participating in all forms of sport, including tennis, golf, fishing, spearfishing, scuba diving, and hiking. He also holds an LSA Pilot’s Licence and is a proud member of the Saldanha Flying Club.
Partner | Attorney, Notary & Conveyancer | BA. LLB
Jan graduated in 1974 with a five-year BA LLB degree from the University of Stellenbosch, whereafter he was admitted as an advocate and prosecuted as such in the Cape Town and Wynberg Courts. In 1974, he joined Swemmer & Levin as the Candidate Attorney of Mr Levin (founding member) and was admitted as an attorney on 7 April 1976, as a conveyancer on 11 January 1978, and as a Notary on 19 December 1984. Since 1974, he has served in various committees, including the West Coast Chamber of Commerce, the Vredenburg School Committee, and the Malgas Lions Club. In 2004, he also joined the partnership of PP Smit Attorneys.
Furthermore, Jan was the author of the first bilingual law book, The New Debt Collecting Procedures (Die Nuwe Skuldinvorderingsprosedures), which was used by all the Magistrate Courts throughout South Africa. With the founding of the Small Claims Court in Vredenburg, Jan served as one of the first Commissioners.